Berne & Levy Physiology
Berne & Levy
|نویسنده||M. Koeppen, A. Stanton|
Berne & Levy Physiology
We are pleased that the following section authors have continued as members of the seventh edition team: Drs. Kalman Rubinson and Eric Lang (nervous system), Dr. James Watras (muscle), Dr. Achilles Pappano (cardiovascular system), Drs. Michelle Cloutier and Roger Thrall (respiratory system), Drs. Kim Barrett and Helen Raybould (gastrointestinal system), and Dr. Bruce White (endocrine and reproductive systems). We also welcome the following authors: Dr. Withrow Gil Wier (cardiovascular system), and Dr. John Harrison (endocrine and reproduction systems).
As in the previous editions of this textbook, we have attempeed to emphasize broad concepts and to minimize the compilation of isolated facts. Each chapter has been written to make the text as lucid, accurate, and current as possible. We have included both clinical and molecular information in each section, as feedback on these features has indicated that this information serves to provide clinical context and new insights into physiologic phenomena at the cellular and molecular levels. New to this edition is a list of sources that the reader can consult for further information on the topics covered in each chapter. We hope that you find this a valuable addition to the book.
The human body consists of billions of cells that are organized into tissues (e.g., muscle, epithelia, and nervous tissue) and organ systems (e.g., nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive). For these tissues and organ systems to function properly and thus allow humans to live and carry out daily activities, several general conditions must be met. First and foremost, the cells within the body must survive. Survival requires adequate cellular energy supplies, maintenance of an appropriate intracellular milieu, and defense against a hostile external environment. Once cell survival is ensured, Cells need a constant supply of en derived from the hydrolysis (ATP). If not replenished, the cebe depleted in most cells in less than 1 minute.
Thus, ATP must be continuously synthesized. This in turn requires a steady supply of cellular fuels. However, the cellular fuels (e.g., glucose, fatty acids, and ketoacids) are present in the blood at levels that can support cellular metabolism only for a few minutes. The blood levels of these cellular fuels are maintained through the ingestion of precursors (i.c., carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). In addition, these fuels can be stored and then mobilized when ingestion of the precursors is not possible. The storage forms of these fuels are triglycerides (stored in adipose tissue), glycogen (stored in the liver and skeletal muscle), and protein.
The maintenance of adequate levels of cellular fuels in the blood is a complex process involving the following tissues, organs, and organ systems:
• Liver. Converts precursors into fuel storage forms (e.g., glucose glycogen) when food is ingested, and converts storage forms to cellular fuels during fasting (e.g., glycogen + glucose and amino acids glucose). Skeletal muscle. Like the liver, stores fuel (glycogen and protein) and converts glycogen and protein to fuels (e.g., glucose) or fuel intermediates (e.g., protein amino acids) during fasting.
• Gastrointestinal tract: Digests and absorbs fuel precursors. . Adipose tissue: Stores fuel during feeding (e.g., fatty acids → triglycerides) and releases the fuels during fasting. • Cardiovascular system: Delivers the fuels to the cells and to and from their storage sites. Endocrine system: Maintains the blood levels of the cellular fuels by controlling and regulating their storage and their release from storage (e.g., insulin and glucagons).
• Nervous system: Monitors oxygen levels and nutrient
خرید کتاب ترجمه فیزیولوژی برن و لوی 2018